Read this article to learn about the Concept, Features, Characteristics, Levels, and Objectives of Management.
Concepts of Management-
In today or modern concept of management, any kind of business is spreading very fast all over the world. If any business does not manage themselves well, then they will not be able to survive in this fast-changing business environment.
“Management is the procedure of doing and getting things done through other factors“. This is a process in which an organization optimizes its resources (Whether it is human resources and material resources) so that it can easily attain its pre-determined objectives.
This basic concept of management contains a lot of source of actions that indicate the functions of a manager, prepares output of a large quantity by putting input of low quantity, and as well as take care of the shareholders and stakeholders (consumers, suppliers, workers, etc) associated with your business.
“Management is a continuous process consisting of various activities of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, and coordinating, performed to determine and achieved pre-determined goals with the use of human, material, financial resources.”
In any organization, at any level, it is very important to have management, and why in only the organization? The management is also compulsory in schools, colleges, universities, business houses, and government activities. It is very compulsory for both profit organization or non-profit organization and as well as manufacturing industries.
It also includes various functions but some functions are very important like:-
Features of Management-
It includes various salient features of management such as:-
1. It is an activity-
Management is the procedure of doing and getting things done through other factors. It involves group efforts for doing or achieving a particular objective and it also builds structured organizations like Reliance, Infosys, and other social clubs or organizations.
It is also a part of continuous administration.
2. It is a process-
This is the second feature of management and this means that when management works, then they follow all the functions of management so that the management can work in a proper manner. The functions of management are planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling, coordinating, and so on.
3. Necessary for all organizations-
Management is a process that is very important in both a business organization or non-business organization because management is such a thing that particular business, colleges, and schools can achieve its objectives and put yourself in a structured way.
4. Required at all organizational levels-
Management is essential for every level of an organization whether it is top-level or middle level or lower level. Every level of management works differently because the levels of management will be established according to their company’s objectives and their individual skills and experiences.
To measure the growth of any organization, the first of all you have to identify the goals of an organization which was achieved previously in several years. Management has a responsibility to manage all the activities which are related to their business and after that achieve the business goal or objective.
6. Intangible in nature-
Management is a particular activity that can not be touched and can not be seen because it is not a human being or their material, we can just feel it or assume it.
Characteristics of Management-
It includes various characteristics of management such as:-
Management is always changing according to the situation of its organization. If we talked about since 1900, then management was of no importance at that time, and whatever the decisions were made at that time the government would have taken it on its own.
2. A Discipline-
Discipline is very important in management because it helps to follow the rules and regulations and as well as it also helps to seek values, ideas, and concepts from other fields of study, such as behavioral sciences, geographical areas, sociology, and so on.
So, that is the reason, discipline is also a major factor to make management successful and effective.
3. Management and Society-
Management is a process through which the company can manage all activities which are related to their production, sales, and others and at the same time, its also achieve the objectives of a particular field so that the society also has an impact on it because management always works for the welfare, social values, and beliefs of the society.
4. Group Efforts-
Management is an activity or process that can never work alone, it is very important to have a lot of team and individuals in it, and because of which they can retain the goals, policies, and procedures of the company.
Team or Group Work = More Profits.
5. Global Function-
Management is not just for a particular society, culture, and country. This is for the entire global economy.
Because the need for management is everywhere, whether it’s in any country or society, as well as it teaches us the right way to do any work.
Levels of Management-
It includes various different levels of management in an organisation, but if we talk about the exact number of levels, then an organization has (3) three levels of management–
- Top-level managers or Top management
- Middle-level managers or Middle management
- Lower-level managers or Lower Management.
These levels of management are totally based on nature, authority, and responsibility of functions performed by managers.
1.Top Level Management-
Top-level management includes managers who work at the highest level of the organizational standard or position. In this level, the number of members is low according to their other levels. It is totally accountable and responsible for the overall management activities of the organization. It includes various managers like, ‘chief executive officers, ‘vice-president, ‘General Managers, and so on.
Functions of Top Level Management-
The top-level management generally focuses on planning and coordination. It prepares the plans, policies, procedures, code of conduct of the organization.
- They prepare the policies, procedures, plans, objectives for the organization.
- They manage the various functions of organizations such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling.
- They appoint various executives for middle management.
- They manage or coordinate the business activities of various departments of the organization.
- They help to interlink the internal environment with the external environment.
- They decide future objectives and task.
2. Middle-Level Management-
Middle-level management includes departmental heads or individuals. They help to indicates the link between top-level and lower-level managers. It applies the organizational goals according to directors of the top-level management. The main point is that they transfer the communication pattern from top to lower-level management and also removes the misunderstanding and other negative things which is bad for any organization.
Functions of Middle-Level Management-
Middle-level managers include various functions such as:-
- They transfer the valid information from top to a lower level.
- They work as a mediator.
- They implement the goals, plans, and procedures of the organization.
- They remark the activities of lower-level management and report them to top-level managers.
- They remove the misunderstanding and other negative things.
- They coordinate the business activities according to their departments.
- They motivate lower-level managers for improving their performance.
3. Lower Level Management-
This level of management is also known as operational level management. They create a link between middle-level managers and non-managerial employees. They monitor the activities of non-managerial employees and coordinate their work for better achievement. They train, motivate or inspire the workers. These managers are ‘foreman’, ‘supervisors’, ‘operating managers’, and so on.
Functions of Lower Level Management-
- It works as a last level of management.
- They follow the rules, regulations, and procedures also.
- They monitor the activities of employees.
- They calculate the performance of employees and send their reports to the top-level of management.
- They maintain production activities.
- They help to solve the problems of the workers.
- They do not directly deal with the outsiders.
- They provide safety tools, equipment, and machines.
Objectives of Management-
How effectively the business achieves its objectives depends upon the management how effectively it is managed. It includes various points for determining the vision, mission, goals, and objectives of management:-
1. Helps to achieve their goals-
Management always works for the achievement of their objectives at minimum cost. It forces managers to work systematically, i.e., achieve maximum output at minimum cost. It is also an important responsibility to carry out your organizational resources together and also coordinate them with their proper use.
2. Promotes Effectiveness-
Efficiency said ‘doing things right‘ and effectiveness said ‘doing the right things‘. It means choosing the best accurate organizational objectives out of the various or multiple objectives. A wrong objective breaks the structure of any organization. So, that is the reason, the management always tries to do things in an effective manner.
3. It helps to develop the ability of managers-
This is the third objectives of management and it means that a manager already has the abilities and skills to judge the problems and opportunities of the business but if they do not get the opportunity to develop their skills then their capacity will be very limited.
That is why management has always thought that it should develop the skills and abilities of its managers so that they can create a grateful opportunity by solving the incoming problems.
4. Human welfare-
In this fourth objectives of management, the management helps its authority so that it is able to know the needs and wants of its customer and to be able to set them up. So, that is the reason, the objectives of management plays an essential role in the business environment.